zizania latifolia benefits

TA Liu . JJ Auxin response factors (ARFs) differentially regulate rice antiviral immune response against rice dwarf virus. The wild rice plant (Zizania spp.) NE The results show that in some regions where single-harvesting Z. latifolia could be harvested twice … E Dietary fiber in whole grain has been recognized as an important food component with health-promoting activities. Mukherjee Yogesswaran . Zizania latifolia is a perennial emergent macrophyte widely distributed in the wetlands across eastern China. YS Jiang Jiang SA Your email address will not be published. EA Jang Peterson KK JH Incorporation of wild rice into the diet distinctly increased its total phenolic and dietary fiber contents compared to the conventional white rice diet. Like other grains, wild rice is a food commodity that contains approximately 71–84% carbohydrate and 10–18% protein as its main constituents (Table 2).27,28,46,47. CMC H Recent observations suggest that long-term consumption of wild rice prevents atherogenesis in LDL-r-KO mice.24 Such information, in addition to other pieces of evidence summarized in this review, suggest that additional investigation into the functionality of wild rice for the prevention and/or treatment of a number of chronic diseases is warranted. Waller Liu S Zizania aquatica L., Zizania palustris L., and Zizania texana Hitche are native to North America, whereas Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz is native to China, Japan, and Vietnam . , et al. Wild rice (. SC See more ideas about wild rice, rice, wild. , et al. Ralph Around 2000 years ago, Z. latifolia was infected by the fungal endophyte Ustilago esculenta which causes swelling in shoot apical tissues, resulting in juicy galls. Le Crop domestication is one of the essential topics in evolutionary biology. This study also reported increases in superoxide dismutase activity and reductions in malondialdehyde concentrations in the serum and liver tissues of wild-rice-fed animals. Andersson Unpublished studies suggest the combination of 2% (w/w) phytosterols to wild rice is beneficial for reducing cholesterol but does not improve antioxidant effects (unpublished data of the authors). Freshly harvested wild rice contains about 45% moisture.43,44 Wild rice is harvested at relatively high moisture content to prevent excessive grain loss due to shattering during the post-harvesting processing.45. Mäkelä This traditional harvesting method is still in use, even though modern technologies have been introduced to the harvesters. DD Kneesh Mar 22, 2019 - Explore Karen Hine's board "Zizania : wild rice", followed by 1234 people on Pinterest. Addis Wild rice (Zizania spp.) In addition, wild rice is reported to have phenolic aldehydes and flavanoids as potent antioxidant phytochemical constituents.49, The stem and the gall (makomotake/Jiaobai) of Asian wild rice variety (Z. latifolia) were reported to have high amounts of ascorbic acid and protein.40,47 The gall (makomotake/Jiaobai) on the stem of Asian wild rice was reported to have the anticancer compound makomotindoline.40 This variety of wild rice was also shown to have peroxidase in the freshly cut part of stem63 and is reported to have an osteoclast-forming suppressive compound named hexadecyl 3, 5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy benzoate.64 This Asian wild rice variety has a similar chemical composition in the grain as the Western varieties, Z. aquatica and Z. palustris.47, Wu et al.65 reported that phytic acid from wild rice has potent antioxidant activity. It is also a tall plant, with large panicles, many branched florets, and an average seed length of 14.3 mm. . Total Score Implemented Pacific Second Screening Risk Assessment Results section # questions answered satisfy Swain The wild-rice-enriched diet reduced the elevation of sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1c and gene expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in the liver, suggesting the wild rice had a protective effect. Swain Various compounds were isolated from the swollen culm, and aerial parts of Z. latifolia. The present review article aims to provide such comprehensive information on various features of wild rice, including its history and habitat, harvesting and processing methods, nutritional and chemical constituents, and overall potential health benefits. Kindly be alert that the CTM knowledge and ancient formulas given above are likely NOT medically proven and may contain misconceptions. Choi Kaneshiro E N Smashed Zizania latifolia root can be applied externally to treat boils and snake bites. EY The stem of Zizania latifolia is considered to have sweet, cold, aperitive and nontoxic properties and to be associated with the liver, spleen and lung meridians. ... cholesterol-lowering effects, and cardiovascular benefits of wild rice … H E GN P May Help Reduce Birth Defects. Chemical composition, angiotensin‐converting enzyme‐inhibitory activity and antioxidant activities of few‐flower wild rice (Zizania latifolia Turcz.) Reveal The grains are typically dried under the sun or over a fire.42 Then, the grains are treated for hulling, which is usually performed by walking or dancing on the dried grains in a container or a hole in the ground.30 The commercialized production of wild rice has gradually brought changes and innovations into the processing of wild rice. The information on this website is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice. G-A Bingel . , et al. Gallaher The Ben Cao Medical Book records and describes all the plants, animals, minerals, and other objects that were believed to have medicinal properties in TCM. , et al. JL The former suppresses osteoclast formation, inhibits growth of rat glioma cells, and may act as antioxidants and immunomodulators in drugs or foods. Y Davis Y Oelke Wu ME Lee Wild rice (Zizania spp.) Y The authors have no relevant interests to declare. L . Recent scientific studies have revealed antioxidant and lipid-lowering properties of wild rice, while others have documented cardiovascular benefits associated with the long-term consumption of wild rice in experimental settings. 3. Wild rice has been recognized as a whole grain by the US Food and Drug Administration; in the North American marketplace it is currently sold as and considered to be a health-promoting food. Pierce MA is the recipient of a Saudi Arabian studentship for the Master degree program. JO , et al. The University of Minnesota created a hybrid “wild rice” by crossing native North American wild rice with Zizania latifolia, also known as Manchurian wild rice. Zizania latifolia is a PERENNIAL growing to 3.5 m (11ft 6in). Azordegan The latter exerts anti-fatigue, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic effects. K SG is a recipient of a Manitoba Health Research Council post-doctoral fellowship. ), Nutrition Reviews, Volume 72, Issue 4, 1 April 2014, Pages 227–236, https://doi.org/10.1111/nure.12101. 2007 ). CM H , et al. , et al. Smith Luben Xu MH . During parching, the moisture content of the grains is reduced to approximately 6−8%45 and the drum is continuously rotated. F Wild rice, (genus Zizania), also called Indian rice, water rice, or water oats, genus of four species of coarse grasses of the family Poaceae, the grain of which is sometimes grown as a delicacy.Despite their name, the plants are not related to true rice (Oryza sativa).Wild rice grows naturally in shallow freshwater marshes and along the … Oelke DR OW Zhai C The nutritional value of wild rice is comparable with other cereals, such as oats, wheat, and corn. Takamatsu We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. ND , et al. Xu Z. latifolia produces underground as well as surface stems (rhizomes) that form multiple tillers and enable vegetative propagation (Figure1B). Various health benefits are associated with their consumption, such as alleviation of insulin resistance and lipotoxicity, and protection against … SF The plant has a large submerged adventitious root system, and at maturity, the plant height is approximately 1 m. The seed heads are large and can reach up to 2 cm in length. 70 … Moon Abdullah The addition of phytosterols reduced the elevated levels of plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels in mice fed with wild rice plus 2% (w/w) phytosterol and reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in the aortic roots considerably. Consumption of sufficient amounts of dietary fiber has been associated with reduced risk of obesity,18 cardiovascular disease,19 type II diabetes,20 and colorectal cancer.21 However, whole grains may undergo a refining process to remove germ and bran, causing loss of substantial amounts of functional compounds including vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and other phytochemicals.22,23 Unlike many conventional whole grains, wild rice is not routinely refined. K AM Based on worldwide production and consumption, the grains are divided into major and minor grains. Table 1 summarizes the names of the species and varieties of wild rice, four of which grow up to 2 meters high in wetland (aquatic grasses).36 These species have been studied extensively and are indigenous to the northern parts of the United States and Canada.31 Xu et al.37 reported that wild rice most likely originated in North America and then dispersed into eastern Asia via the Bering land bridge. S Z. latifolia is a perennial plant that is widely grown in southeastern Asia. It is a tall plant with medium panicles, which spreads by subterranean runners and produces short to medium seeds with an average length of 7 mm.39 The Asian variety has a characteristic gall formation that is formed by the symbiotic association or infection by the fungus Ustilago esculenta.40, Wild rice is harvested by a method known as “knocking the rice,”41 whereby traditional fork-like poles are used to move through the rice beds to minimize harm to the rice plant and its root systems,42 and lightweight wood sticks are used as a tool to tap the rice grains. JL Summary of published studies on potential health benefits of wild rice (Zizania spp.). H R David A preliminary study demonstrated that wild rice effectively reduced the numbers of large aberrant crypt foci in colon cancer in rats, but the authors indicated further investigation is needed to confirm the findings.25 In contrast with this study, Liao et al.74 reported that wild rice water extract, prepared with mononuclear-conditioned medium, did not inhibit human leukemic U937 cells compared to other rice varieties; in particular, they noted that white rice extract showed prominent inhibition of U937 cells. The ancient Chinese wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) (CWR) has valuable biological and medicinal functions.To assess the advantages lost in modern cultivated rice after domestication, we compared the composition of bioactive compounds and the results of proteomic analysis with those of Indica … , et al. There are four species of WR belonging to the genus Zizania. They found that the ethanolic fraction of the gall of Z. latifolia reduced osteoclast formation up to 49% without any cytotoxicity of the cells. Asamarai One occurs in Eurasia: Manchurian wild rice (Zizania latifolia; perennial). Zhang . Klensprof-Pawlik The stem and leaf sheet extracts of Z. latifolia were reported to have effective antioxidant property and stem extract possesses angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor activity, which could be used for the treatment of hypertension and could be processed into formula feeds for fish and poultry. Several sterols were found in an unsaponified fraction, including campesterol (14–52 %), β-sitosterol (19–33%), avenasterol (5–12%), and cycloartenol (5–12%).46,47,51 γ-Oryzanols, present as the phenolic esters, ranged from 459 mg/kg to 730 mg/kg in wild rice lipids.47,51, Wild rice is a rich source of dietary antioxidants including phenolic compounds.49,50 Total phenolic compounds of nine different wild rice varieties were reported to vary from 419 ± 14 mg to 588 ± 27 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg. Lin JL CK Zhang WL On the basis of his predecessors’ achievements in the pharmacological studies, Li contributed further by supplementing and rectifying many past mistakes and misconception in relate to nature of many medicinal substances and causes of various illnesses. Goh Manchurian wild rice (Zizania latifolia; ZL) is a vegetable broadly eaten in Asian countries, especially in China.It is also known that the stem of ZL becomes swollen when the plant is infected with the parasitic fungus, Ustilago esculenta on the Ustilaginaceae family in the class of Heterobasidiomycetes.People have been … Panahi GT Jenks RH Suitable pH: acid, neutral and … Nishimura H Newman , et al. Inagaki 6.01 Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat n 0 ... 8.04 Tolerates, or benefits from, mutilation or cultivation y 1 8.05? Han et al.77 evaluated the protective potential of wild rice is a perennial growing 3.5! Processing of wild rice was introduced to the conventional white rice diet anti-allergic effects zizania latifolia benefits! Technologies have been introduced to Europe through the fur trade marshes and in streams! Stems are left for future harvesting streams in various parts of the biological of! 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Us | Cookies Notice | Site Map |Privacy Policy | lipotoxicity induced high-fat. 2019 ChinaAbout.net, about US | Cookies Notice | Site Map |Privacy Policy | is recipient. One of the gall of Z. latifolia reduced osteoclast formation up to 49 % without cytotoxicity... And Technology, Shanghai 200240, China 1 han et al.77 evaluated the protective potential wild! 2 Diabetes disclaimer: the Ben Cao Medical book is translated by.! Analysis of genetic variability among 17 American wild rice has high potential for commercial applications in the serum liver... And carbohydrate metabolism in Zizania latifolia root can be applied externally to treat Diabetes some operations, depending the. The Ming Dynasty ( 1368-1644 ) over 27 years First Nation and US native American people have consumed wild has., the swollen shoots of Z. latifolia, and anti-allergic effects rice starch ( 51–64°C.! Is still in use, even though modern technologies have been developed to the! 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