Another, Moravia, extended as far east as the Gran, or Garam (Hron), River and openly defied its Carolingian overlord. Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország [ˈmɒɟɒrorsaːɡ] (listen)) is a country in Central Europe.  According to the Finno-Ugrian theory, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that formerly inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.  It is the thirteenth-most popular tourist destination in Europe, drawing 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Famous Hungarian mathematicians include father Farkas Bolyai and son János Bolyai, who was one of the founders of non-Euclidean geometry; Paul Erdős, famed for publishing in over forty languages and whose Erdős numbers are still tracked, and John von Neumann, a key contributor in the fields of quantum mechanics and game theory, a pioneer of digital computing, and the chief mathematician in the Manhattan Project. Besides the two principal styles, Budapest also displays local versions of trends originating from other European countries. The Hungarian forces (Honvédség) defeated Austrian armies. He was a successful military leader and an enlightened patron of the arts and learning. Population density stands at 107 inhabitants per square kilometre, which is about two times higher than the world average. This exceeded the income of the French king (estimated at 17 tonnes) and was double the receipts of the English Crown.. Thus, Hungarians made up more than 90% of people who declared their ethnicity. According to the legend, when the 1848 Hungarian …  There are about 54 Grandmasters and 118 International Masters in Hungary, which is more than in France or United Kingdom. Flowers and leaves, sometimes a bird or a spiral ornament, are the principal decorative themes. A népesség nyelvismeret és nemek szerint (population by spoken language), 18.104.22.168 A népesség anyanyelv, nemzetiség és nemek szerint (population by mother tongue and ethnicity), 22.214.171.124 A népesség vallás, felekezet, és fontosabb demográfiai ismérvek szerint (population by religion, denomination and main demographical indicators) (Hungarian)", Studies in medieval and renaissance history, "Population by type of settlement – annually", "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019", "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey", "Eurostat – Population on 1 January 2015", "Uralic (Finno-Ugrian) languages, Classification of the Uralic (Finno-Ugrian) languages, with present numbers of speakers and areas of distribution (last updated 24 September 2015)", "Austria-Hungary, HISTORICAL EMPIRE, EUROPE", "Text of the Treaty, Treaty of Peace Between The Allied and Associated Powers and Hungary And Protocol and Declaration, Signed at Trianon June 4, 1920", http://kapos.hu/hirek/kis_szines/2018-06-16/megerkezett_az_idei_balaton_sound_himnusza.html, "Hungarian Who Led '56 Revolt Is Buried as a Hero", "List of OECD Member countries – Ratification of the Convention on the OECD", "Compulsory Education in Europe 2013/2014", "Hungary's Nobel Prize Winners, 13 Hungarian win Nobel Prize yet", "Population per Gold Medal. The most famous wines from Hungary are Tokaji Aszú and Egri Bikavér. The country switched to using the Latin language, and until as late as 1844, Latin remained the official language of Hungary. The bisztró is an inexpensive restaurant often with self-service. Average high temperature in the summer is 23 to 28 °C (73 to 82 °F) and average low temperature in the winter is −3 to −7 °C (27 to 19 °F). On 4 June of that year, the Treaty of Trianon established new borders for Hungary. The first enlightened writers were Maria Theresia's bodyguards (György Bessenyei, János Batsányi and others). The vote marked the first the European parliament had triggered an article 7 procedure against an EU member state. This made Artúr Görgey surrender in August 1849.  In 2015, 47.9% of births were to unmarried women. Those of Kalotaszeg in Transylvania are charming products of Oriental design, sewn chiefly in a single color – red, blue, or black. During World War I, out of the eight million men mobilized by Austro Hungarian Empire, over one million died. The Hungarian Grand Prix in Formula One has been held at the Hungaroring just outside Budapest, which circuit has FIA Grade 1 license. The Kékes at 1,014 m or 3,327 ft is the tallest mountain in Hungary and is found here. The employment rate in the economy was 68.3% in 2017, the employment structure shows the characteristics of post-industrial economies, 63.2% of employed workforce work in service sector, the industry contributed by 29.7%, while agriculture with 7.1%. The uprisings lasted for years. On 13 February 1945, Budapest surrendered; by April, German troops left the country under Soviet military occupation. BUDAPEST, Hungary (AP) — Pressure is growing on the Hungarian government to withdraw a draft bill on higher education that could lead to the closure of the Central European University in Budapest, which was founded by billionaire philanthropist George Soros.  The first element magy is likely from Proto-Ugric *mäńć- 'man, person', also found in the name of the Mansi people (mäńćī, mańśi, måńś).  Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was partially occupied by the Ottoman Empire (1541–1699). Each point consists of four parts, each lasting four counts. Hungary since 1989 has also improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine. The greatest figure of the language reform was Ferenc Kazinczy. Zrínyi's most significant work, the epic Szigeti veszedelem ("Peril of Sziget", written in 1648/49) is written in a fashion similar to the Iliad, and recounts the heroic Battle of Szigetvár, where his great-grandfather died while defending the castle of Szigetvár. The Soviet leadership selected Mátyás Rákosi to front the Stalinization of the country, and Rákosi de facto ruled Hungary from 1949 to 1956. Since the 20th century, goulash has been a must-have dish at any Hungarian-inspired restaurant. Hungarian traditional music tends to have a strong dactylic rhythm, as the language is invariably stressed on the first syllable of each word. Hungary has renowned composers of contemporary classical music, György Ligeti, György Kurtág, Péter Eötvös, Zoltán Kodály and Zoltán Jeney among them. He pledges that the two kingdoms will remain separate, linked only by the crown of St Stephen. The Busójárás carnival in Mohács is a major Hungarian folk music event, formerly featuring the long-established and well-regarded Bogyiszló orchestra.. His election was the first time that a member of the nobility mounted to the Hungarian royal throne without dynastic background. In 1963, the government granted a general amnesty and released the majority of those imprisoned for their active participation in the uprising. Large Hungarian companies are included in the BUX, the Hungarian stock market index listed on Budapest Stock Exchange. At the time of the conquest, Árpád occupied the latter position, and, following the death of the last kende in 904, he united the two positions into the office of a duke or prince. The büfé is the cheapest place, although one may have to eat standing at a counter. Chess is also a popular and successful sport in Hungary, the Hungarian players are the 10th most powerful overall on the ranking of World Chess Federation. The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces. Hungary’s Budapest parliament building is ranked the third world’s largest parliament building and is the tallest building in the city. Borozó usually denotes a cozy old-fashioned wine tavern, pince is a beer or wine cellar and a söröző is a pub offering draught beer and sometimes meals. The lesser nobles also began to present Andrew with grievances, a practice that evolved into the institution of the parliament (parlamentum publicum). All county seats except Budapest are urban counties. Stephen promulgated Roman Catholicism as the state religion, and his successors were traditionally known as the Apostolic Kings. Hungary's population was 9,937,628 according to the 2011 census, making it the fifth most populous country in Central and Eastern Europe and medium-sized member state of the European Union. Older veteran underground bands such as Beatrice, from the 1980s, also remain popular. They have also seen success in canoeing and kayaking they are the third most successful overall. Protocols governing higher education in Hungary violate EU law, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) has ruled. The remains of their bath complexes are still to be seen in Óbuda. Motorway sections are being added to the existing network, which already connects many major economically important cities to the capital.  King Béla IV let Cumans and Jassic people into the country, who were fleeing the Mongols. From a small noble family in Transylvania, John Hunyadi grew to become one of the country's most powerful lords, thanks to his outstanding capabilities as a mercenary commander. Some Jews were able to escape, but most were either deported to concentration camps, where they were killed, or murdered in Hungary by Arrow Cross members. They were driven, at an uncertain date and by unrecorded causes, southward onto the steppes, where they adopted the life of peripatetic herders. Austria–Hungary drafted 9 million (fighting forces: 7.8 million) soldiers in World War I (over 4 million from the Kingdom of Hungary) on the side of Germany, Bulgaria and Turkey. Wikisource has original works on the topic: Officially the Republic of China, participates as ", This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 01:03. Hungary has 3,152 localities as of July 15, 2013. Since 2017, the relations with Ukraine rapidly deteriorated over the issue of the Hungarian minority in Ukraine. (IX. István Medgyaszay developed his own style, which differed from Lechner's, using stylised traditional motifs to create decorative designs in concrete. Although they did not attempt to conquer Hungary in one go they intended to take it in stages. Kádár proclaimed a new policy line, according to which the people were no longer compelled to profess loyalty to the party if they tacitly accepted the Socialist regime as a fact of life. In the sphere of applied arts, those chiefly responsible for promoting the spread of Art Nouveau were the School and Museum of Decorative Arts, which opened in 1896. Due to Hungary's accession to the Schengen Treaty, the Police and Border Guards were merged into a single national corps, with the Border Guards becoming Police Officers. Hungary is a parliamentary democracy. An important extension to Hungarian territory is the acquisition of Croatia.  Between 15 May and 9 July 1944 alone, over 434,000 Jews were deported on 147 trains, most of them to Auschwitz, where about 80 percent were gassed on arrival. The early appearance of Protestantism further worsened internal relations in the country. Now, they decided to found a new monastery in Szeklerland (Romania), in Hargitafürdő, a charming holiday village surrounded by fir forests and beautiful mountains. The court system for civil and criminal jurisdiction consists of local courts (járásbíróság), regional appellate courts (ítélőtábla), and the supreme court (Kúria). Hungary ranks fourth (above neighbour Romania, and after China, the United States and Russia) in the all-time medal count at the International Mathematical Olympiad with 336 total medals, dating back to 1959. The Ministry of Defence jointly with Chief of staff administers the armed forces, including the Hungarian Ground Force and the Hungarian Air Force. , During the 18th and 19th century, Hungarian Hussars rose to international fame and served as a model for light cavalry in many European countries. , Like most other European countries, Hungary is experiencing sub-replacement fertility; its estimated total fertility rate of 1.43 children per woman is well below the replacement rate of 2.1, albeit higher than its nadir of 1.28 in 1999, and remains considerably below the high of 5.59 children born per woman in 1884. , Wine: As Hugh Johnson says in The History of Wine, the territory of Hungary is ideal for wine-making and the country can be divided to six wine regions: North-Transdanubia, Lake Balaton, South-Pannónia, Duna-region or Alföld, Upper-Hungary and Tokaj-Hegyalja. Nearly all the manifestations of folk art practiced elsewhere in Europe also flourished among the Magyar peasantry at one time or another, their ceramics and textile being the most highly developed of all. Up to half of Hungary's then population of 2,000,000 were victims of the invasion. Spa culture was revived during the Turkish Invasion and the thermal springs of Buda were used for the construction of a number of bathhouses, some of which such as (Király Baths, Rudas Baths) are still functioning. According to the WWF, the territory of Hungary belongs to the ecoregion of Pannonian mixed forests. Béla Lajta initially adopted Lechner's style, subsequently drawing his inspiration from English and Finnish trends; after developing an interest in the Egyptian style, he finally arrived at modern architecture. The Great Depression further exacerbated the situation and the popularity of fascist politicians such as Gyula Gömbös and Ferenc Szálasi, promising economic and social recovery, rose. Hungary won its first gold medal in Winter Olympics in 2018 in mens short track speed skating with a team of four: Csaba Burján, Sándor Liu, Shaoang Liu, Viktor Knoch. The oldest remaining complete text in Hungarian language is the Funeral Sermon and Prayer (Halotti beszéd és könyörgés) (1192–1195), a translation of a Latin sermon. Initially, the rising Principality of Hungary ("Western Tourkia" in medieval Greek sources) was a state created by a semi-nomadic people. , The Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, and the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, and 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Verbunkos is a solo man's dance evolved from the recruiting performances of the Austro-Hungarian army. József Antall became the first democratically elected Prime Minister since World War II. Many people still follow the tradition, although younger people often disavow it, citing that the vow was only meant to last 150 years. . Foreigners have unexpectedly "discovered" that a significantly large portion of the citizens live in old and architecturally valuable buildings. In water polo the Hungarian team is the leading medal winner by a significant margin and in swimming Hungarian men are fourth most successful overall, while the women are eighth most successful overall. In the Sárköz region the women's caps show black and white designs as delicate as lace, and give evidence of the people's wonderfully subtle artistic feeling. The Eastern front of the Allied (Entente) Powers completely collapsed. For a time, the Soviet leadership was unsure how to respond to developments in Hungary but eventually decided to intervene to prevent a destabilization of the Soviet bloc. Also, the national teams have produced some surprise successes such as beating Euro 2004 winner Greece 3–2 and 2006 FIFA World Cup winner Italy 3–1. The system is partly flexible and bridges exist, graduates from a vocational school can achieve a two years program to have access to vocational higher education for instance. Hungarian folk music is a prominent part of the national identity and continues to play a major part in Hungarian music. As a NATO member, Hungary was involved in the Yugoslav Wars. In the past 20 years Hungary has also grown into a major center for mobile technology, information security, and related hardware research. Kristó Gyula – Barta János – Gergely Jenő: Magyarország története előidőktől 2000-ig (History of Hungary from the prehistory to 2000), Pannonica Kiadó, Budapest, 2002, Laszlo Kontler, "A History of Hungary" p. 145, Peter N Stearns, The Oxford encyclopedia of the modern world, Volume 4, Oxford University Press, 2008, p. 64, Laszlo Peter, Martyn C. Rady, Peter A. Sherwood: Lajos Kossuth sas word...: papers delivered on the occasion of the bicentenary of Kossuth's birth (page 101), Alfred de Zayas "Raoul Wallenberg" in Dinah Shelton Encyclopedia of Genocide (Macmillan Reference 2005, vol. The current state, the Third Hungarian Republic, was formed in 1989 as a successor to the Hungarian People's Republic. The post-golden age decades saw a gradually weakening Hungary, though recently there is renewal in all aspects. Coordinates: 47°N 20°E / 47°N 20°E / 47; 20, – in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green) – [Legend]. The 2017 law focused on foreign universities but singled out the Central European University (CEU) founded by George Soros. The body is divided into county police departments which are also divided into regional and town police departments. Hungary has a long tradition of higher education reflecting the existence of established knowledge economy. Lajos Kossuth escaped into exile. There are approximately 450 public baths in Hungary.. John M. Merriman, J. M. Winter, Europe 1789 to 1914: encyclopedia of the age of industry and empire, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2006, p. 140. In 2016, the armed forces had 31,080 personnel on active duty, the operative reserve brought the total number of troops to fifty thousand. 3).  There are considerable health disparities between the western and eastern parts of Hungary; heart disease, hypertension, stroke, and suicide is prevalent in the mostly agricultural and low-income Great Plain region in the east, but infrequent in the high-income, middle class areas of Western Transdanubia and Central Hungary. The President of the Republic (köztársasági elnök) serves as the head of state and is elected by the National Assembly every five years. 7. However, plum (szilva) is the most popular flavour. Tadayuki Hayashi, Hiroshi Fukuda, Regions in Central and Eastern Europe: past and present, Slavic Research Center, Hokkaido University, 2007, p. 158. Each man performs a number of points (dance phrases), typically four to eight without repetition. From the 1960s through the late 1980s, Hungary was often referred to as "the happiest barrack" within the Eastern bloc. (See Bible translations into Hungarian for more details.).  Over the centuries, they were fully assimilated into the Hungarian population.. The country switched to the Latin alphabet after being Christianized under the reign of Stephen I of Hungary (1000–1038). In the Budapest downtown area almost all the buildings are about one hundred years old, with thick walls, high ceilings, and motifs on the front wall.. They were then firmly established in the whole centre of the basin, over which their tribes and their associates distributed themselves. 346 towns (Hungarian term: város, plural: városok; the terminology doesn't distinguish between cities and towns – the term town is used in official translations) and 2,806 villages (Hungarian: község, plural: községek). Hungary formally joined the Axis Powers on 20 November 1940, and in 1941, participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia, gaining some of its former territories in the south. Budapest has also lost several bids to host the games, in 1916, 1920, 1936, 1944, and 1960 to Berlin, Antwerp, London, and Rome, respectively.. Tokaji wine has received accolades from numerous great writers and composers including Beethoven, Liszt, Schubert and Goethe; Joseph Haydn's favorite wine was a Tokaji. , Between 1703 and 1711, there was a large-scale uprising led by Francis II Rákóczi, who after the dethronement of the Habsburgs in 1707 at the Diet of Ónod, took power provisionally as the Ruling Prince of Hungary for the wartime period, but refused the Hungarian Crown and the title "King". Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe.It covers an area of 93,030 square kilometres (35,920 sq mi), situated in the Carpathian Basin and bordered by Slovakia to the north, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west, Austria to the northwest, and Ukraine to the northeast. His government's policies of militarization, industrialization, collectivization, and war compensation led to a severe decline in living standards. The cabinet reports to parliament. The capital Budapest has a special status and is not included in any county while 23 of the towns are so-called urban counties (megyei jogú város – town with county rights).  Besides this Hungary has a large portion of specialised small and medium enterprise, for example a significant number of automotive suppliers and technology start ups among others.  The Swedish Diplomat Raoul Wallenberg managed to save a considerable number of Hungarian Jews by giving them Swedish passports. This article is about the country.  According to the 2011 census, there were 8,314,029 (83.7%) ethnic Hungarians, 308,957 (3.1%) Romani, 131,951 (1.3%) Germans, 29,647 (0.3%) Slovaks, 26,345 (0.3%) Romanians, and 23,561 (0.2%) Croats in Hungary; 1,455,883 people (14.7% of the total population) did not declare their ethnicity. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri. Abroad he defeated the Polish and German imperial armies of Frederick at Breslau (Wrocław). Since then, however, the Hungarian music industry has begun to recover, producing successful performers in the fields of jazz such as trumpeter Rudolf Tomsits, pianist-composer Károly Binder and, in a modernized form of Hungarian folk, Ferenc Sebő and Márta Sebestyén. Hungary formally entered World War II as an Axis Power on 26 June 1941, declaring war on the Soviet Union after unidentified planes bombed Kassa, Munkács, and Rahó. After the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, the Hungarian prime minister István Tisza and his cabinet tried to avoid the outbreak and escalating of a war in Europe, but their diplomatic efforts were unsuccessful. In imitation of Stalin's KGB, the Rákosi government established a secret political police, the ÁVH, to enforce the new regime. The Hungarian Kuruc army, although taking over most of the country, lost the main battle at Trencsén (1708). In this way, he created an original synthesis of architectural styles. The Catholic Church in Hungary remained strong through the centuries, and the Archbishop of Esztergom was granted extraordinary temporal privileges as prince-primate (hercegprímás) of Hungary. The foreign policy of Hungary is based on four basic commitments: to Atlantic co-operation, to European integration, to international development and to international law. Three years later, because of the growing desertion, defeatism and low morale, the Kuruc forces finally surrendered..  The Hungarians defeated no fewer than three major East Frankish imperial armies between 907 and 910. Hungary maintains a universal health care system largely financed by government national health insurance. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century AD by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin. By October 1944, the Soviets had reached the river Tisza, and despite some losses, succeeded in encircling and besieging Budapest in December. In either case, in antiquity parts of Hungary’s territory had formed the ancient Roman provinces of Pannonia and Dacia. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century AD, Pannonia, the western part of the Carpathian Basin, was part of the Roman Empire. At the 2013 Hungarian Grand Prix, it was confirmed that Hungary will continue to host a Formula 1 race until 2021. The first book printed in Hungary was the Chronica Hungarorum. This happened under the direction of Béla Linder, minister of war in the Károlyi government. There are five international airports in Hungary: Budapest Liszt Ferenc (informally called "Ferihegy" after its previous name), Debrecen, Sármellék (also called Hévíz-Balaton Airport), Győr-Pér, and Pécs-Pogány. 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